From Relational Logic and Relational Epistemology to Relationalism

Tools to Reduce Confusion in the Public Square and to Resolve the Crisis in Modern Economic Theory


  • Carmine Gorga The Somist Institute


Economic Theory, Relational Logic, Relational Epistemology, Relationism


Relational Logic establishes relations between the three basic principles of logic: identity, non-contradiction, and equivalence. These three principles were used by Cro-Magnon men and women to “name names.” Ever since the Greeks used the principle of equivalence, not to analyze concrete entities such as names, but to determine the truth value of individual words and individual propositions our mind has plunged into a world of abstraction.

Relational Epistemology adds new items to the list of tools of epistemology: to names, ideas, and concepts, Relational Epistemology calls upon theories, “systems of thought,” and “processes” (the analysis of the dynamic of systems). Dialectic ideas and ideals are also tools of epistemology.

The indissoluble union of Relational Logic and Relational Epistemology yields the Relational Method of Analysis (RMA).Faithfully applying RMA to a variety of mental disciplines, one unifies them and obtains the transformation of Rationalism into Relationalism. From the atomism and discord of the modern world we pass to the discovery of systematic and harmonious relationships of everything with everything else. This work is in obeisance to Lukacs, and others, who have stated that we are “At the End of an Age”—and the beginning of another.

The paper is in three parts: Part I, Relational Logic; Part II , Relational Epistemology; Part III, Relationalism. Each part is a schematic presentation of very long and complex developments in human thought. Each Part is designed to give us a better understanding of our confused moment in history. Special emphasis is placed throughout on how the present analysis can be of help in clarifying and solving the crisis in modern economic theory.


Allen, R.G.D. Mathematical economics. Second edition. New York, NY: Macmillan and St. Martin's, 1970.

Aquinas on Being and Essence: A Translation and Interpretation (1988). Joseph Bobik. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Aristotle. Categories, trans. E. M. Edghill (New York, NY: Random House, 1947), 14-30.

Bahn, Paul G., ed. An Enquiring Mind: Studies in Honor of Alexander Marshack. UK, Oxford: Oxford Books, 2009.

Boland, L R. "A Critique of Friedman's Critics," Journal of Economic Literature, June 1979, 17 (2).

Boulding, Kenneth E. The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1956.

Brady, M. E. . “4.5 Stars-A dynamic systems (the economic system as a complex, evolving process) reinterpretation of Keynes's Y= C+ I model,” a review of “GORGA” by GORGA on Amazon Books, July 8.

Brandom, Robert. “Understanding the Object/Property Structure in Terms of Negation: An Introduction to Hegelian Logic and Metaphysics”. 10/19/2014.

Brinkman, Eric. Easy Logic: Tibetan Wisdom for Happiness and Success, Bowie, AZ: Diamond Mountain University Press, 2014.

Broski, Mark. 2003. Review of “The Economic Process: An Instantaneous Non-Newtonian Picture. Carmine Gorga.” Journal of Markets and Morality, 6 (1): 297-98.

Calhoun, Herbert L. “The Ultimate Challenge to Cognitive Archaeological Orthodoxy?”, June 12, 2015.

Davidson, Paul. 2003. Review of “The Economic Process: An Instantaneous Non-Newtonian Picture. By Carmine Gorga. Lanham, MD, and Oxford: University Press of America, 2002.” Journal of Economic Literature, 16 (4): 284-85.

Descartes, René. Discourse on the Method of rightly conducting the reason and seeking the truth in the sciences. New York, HY: Collier, 1938 [1637].

Eisner, R. (1899, 1927, 1930). Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Expressions, Oakland, CA: University of California Libraries.

Feyerebend, Paul. Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge. London and New York, NY: New Left Books, 1975

Friedman, Milton. Essays in Positive Economics, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1953.

Fuller, Buckminster R. Synergistics: Explorations in the geometry of thinking. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1975.

Fuller, Buckminster R. Personal communication to the author. November 15, 1979.

Gare, Arran. 2002. “The Roots of Postmodernism: Schelling, Process Philosophy, and Poststructuralism.” From: Process and Difference: Between Cosmological and Poststructuralist Postmodernisms Ed. Catherine Keller and Anne Daniell. SUNY Press, New York, 2002: pp.31-53.

Goldsmith, Raymond W. A Study of Saving in the United States. Vol. II. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1955.

Gorga, Carmine. "Toward the Definition of Economic Rights,” The Journal of Markets and Morality, Spring 1999, II (1) 88-101. Reprinted with a new introduction and postscript at Mother Pelican Journal, November 2014.

Gorga, Carmine. The Economic Process: An Instantaneous Non-Newtonian Picture. Lanham, Md. and Oxford: University Press of America, 2002 (softcover 2009a). The Somist Institute, 2016.

Gorga, Carmine. “On the Equivalence of Matter to Energy and to Spirit,” Transactions on Advanced Research, Volume 3, Number 2, June 2007 (ISSN 1820—4511: 40-45).

Gorga, Carmine. “Concordian Economics: Tools to Return Relevance to Economics,” Forum for Social Economics, 2009b, Volume 38, Issue 1, pages 53-69.

Gorga, Carmine. “Toward Relational Ontology: From Matter to Spirit through Physics and Metaphysics,”, December 21, 2009c.

Gorga, Carmine. “The Equivalence of the Three Persons of the Triune God,” Social Science Research Network (SSRN), December 24, 2009d.

Gorga, Carmine. “On the Transformation of Mathematics from a Linear to a Relational Discipline—Toward the Reunification of the Physical and the Social Sciences,” International Journal of Mathematics, Game Theory and Algebra, 2010, vol. 19, issue 4, pp. 235-244.

Gorga, Carmine. “Somism: Beyond Individualism and Collectivism Toward a World of Peace and Justice,” Mother Pelican Journal, Vol. 10, No, 11, November 2014.

Gorga, Carmine. “Wake up America. Wake up from Your 250-Year Old Slumber,” Mother Pelican Journal, Vol. 12, No, 6, June 2016.

Gorga, Carmine. “A Cascade of Errors (1517-2017).” OpEdNews, 10/31/2017a.

Gorga, Carmine. “The Abuse of Words.” Mother Pelican Journal, Vol. 13, No, 11, November 2017b.

Gorga, Carmine. “Return to Economic Justice: From Entitlements to Rights.” Catholic Social Science Review. , Vol. 22, 2017c.

Gorga, Carmine. The Redemption of the Bully: Through Love Toward the Beloved Community. Scholar’s Press. Mauritius, 2018.

Gorga, Carmine. “Concordianism: Beyond Capitalism And Socialism Toward A World Of Peace And Justice,” Econintersect, September 6, 2021a.

Gorga, Carmine. “From Rationalism to Relationalism,” Academia Letters, 2021b.

Gorga, Carmine. “How to Solve Money Woes of the World Using the Bancor.,” Econintersect. March 28, 2022.

Hayek, Friedrich A. The Counter-Revolution of Science. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1955.

Holmes, Roger W. The Idealism of Giovanni Gentile. New York: Macmillan, 1937.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason, trans. F. M. Muller. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966.

Keynes, John Maynayrd. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. New York, NY: Harcourt, 1936.

Kuhn, T S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Leontief, Wassily. Studies in the Structure of the American Economy: Theoretical and Empirical Explorations in Input-Output Analysis. Armonk, NY: M E Sharpe Inc. 1976.

Lukacs, John. At the End of an Age. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2002.

Mannheim, K. [(1929, 1936) 2015]. Ideology and Utopia, Eastford, CT: Martino Fine Books.

Marshack, Alexander. The roots of civilization; the cognitive beginnings of man's first art, symbol, and notation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1972.

Mccloskey, Donald N. "The Rhetoric of Economics," Journal of Economic Literature 21:2 (June 1983): 481-517.

Mcswain, H. W. (1994). A Relational Aesthetic, New York, MY: Peter Lang.

Opuda-Asibo, J. (2021). “Comment” at Gorga,

Piketty, Thomas. 2014. Capital In The Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, Ma: Belknap Press.

Pilkington, Phil. (2014). “Authoritative Arguments in Economics,” Econintersect Blog, November 9.

Prawat, Richard S. (2005). “The Nominalism Versus Realism Debate: Toward a Philosophical Rather than a Political Resolution.” Educational Theory 53(3):275 - 311

Robinson, Judy. “Not counting on Marshack: a reassessment of the work of Alexander Marshack on notation in the Upper Paleolithic.” Journal of Mediterranean Studies, 1992, 2(1): 1-16.

Smith, Adam. (1904). 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Methuen & Co. ed. Edwin Cannan, 1756Fifth edition,

Suppes, Patrick. Introduction to Logic. Princeton, NJ: van Nostrand, 1957.

Van Vleck, Tom. The Figures of the Syllogism, 10/01/14.

Whitehead, A. N. (1929). Process and Reality. New York, NY: Free Press.

Zenkin, A. (2000). “Ssientific Counter-Revolution in Mathematics,” Independent Newspaper, 19 July. Supplement "In-Science”, Number 7 (32).




How to Cite

Gorga, C. (2023). From Relational Logic and Relational Epistemology to Relationalism: Tools to Reduce Confusion in the Public Square and to Resolve the Crisis in Modern Economic Theory. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 19(1), 249–326. Retrieved from